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    What is a Urine Complete Analysis Test?

    A Urine Routine examination evaluates the different components found in a urine sample through a rapid and non-invasive process. It involves several checks to detect or quantify substances within the urine. Medical professionals usually look at the following elements:

    • Colour and Appearance: The physical characteristics of the urine.

    • Microscopic Findings: Examination of the urine sample under a microscope.

    • Chemical Findings: Testing for various chemical substances in the urine.

    This test can help identify numerous diseases before symptoms appear based on the examination of urine. It is valuable for detecting urinary tract infections (UTIs) and other conditions like kidney diseases, diabetes, and liver disorders. The Urine Routine test might be used for evaluating health before surgeries, hospital admissions, routine checkups, or during pregnancy.

    Urine Complete Analysis Test Parameters

    A Urine test in Gurgaon assesses three categories of parameters for testing:

    This part involves assessing the urine’s colour and appearance. The test identifies abnormalities in urine appearance such as foamy, cloudy urine, and changes in urine colour such as dark or cola-coloured. Normal urine colour ranges from pale yellow to dark amber, based on how concentrated or diluted it is.

    This involves a microscope to examine a small urine sample and identify substances that are not visible normally. This can include the identification of various cells including red blood cells, urinary casts, pus cells, mucus, amorphous phosphates, crystals, and microbes like yeast, bacteria, and parasites in the urine.

    The chemical analysis is also known as a dipstick test. This assessment is done using a thin plastic stick with chemical strips attached. When dipped into the urine, these strips change colour if certain substances are present at abnormal levels. A dipstick test is primarily used to assess urinary pH. It can also check for a variety of parameters, including bilirubin, proteins, urobilinogen, nitrites, urine-specific gravity, ketones, blood, and leukocyte esterase.

    Parameter 1

    Physical Examination

    Parameter 2

    Microscopic Examination

    Parameter 3

    Chemical Examination

    Urine Complete Analysis Test Preparation

    Refer to the instructions given below before preparing for a Urine Routine examination:

    Prerequisites

    You do not need to fast before a Urine test at home. Ensure you drink enough fluids beforehand to provide an adequate sample.

    Best Time to Get Tested

    A Urine test can typically be conducted at any time of the day. In some instances, a first-morning urine sample might be required depending on the test’s purpose. You will be informed in that case.

    Eligibility for Urine Test

    The test can be taken by anyone willing to assess their health. Reasons for testing may include routine medical examination, monitoring of ongoing conditions like diabetes or kidney disease under treatment, diagnosis of a UTI, when experiencing symptoms of kidney disease or diabetes, upon hospital admission, or as a preparatory checkup before surgery.

    Cautions Before Taking Urine Test

    Why Take a Urine Complete Analysis Test?

    A Urine test in Gurgaon can be performed for several reasons such as:

    Routine Checkups: Urine tests are often part of routine medical exams to screen for early signs of conditions like kidney disease, diabetes, or liver disease.

    Pregnancy Screening: For pregnant women, the test evaluates elevated sugar, proteins, ketones, and bacteria levels to check for bladder or kidney infections, dehydration, and preeclampsia.

    Diagnosing Symptoms: For individuals showing symptoms of diabetes or kidney disease, the test assists in diagnosing these conditions. Symptoms of diabetes include excessive thirst, weight loss, blurred vision, increased hunger, fatigue, and frequent urination. Kidney disease symptoms include loss of appetite, general fatigue, headaches, dry and itchy skin, nausea, and unintended weight loss.

    Monitoring of Conditions: It’s used to monitor ongoing health problems such as diabetes or kidney disease that are under treatment.

    Detecting UTIs: The test helps identify urinary tract infections, indicated by symptoms like painful urination, lower abdominal or back pain, and an increased urge to urinate.

    Preoperative Assessment: Before surgery, a urine test checks for kidney disease, poorly managed diabetes, and UTIs.

    Urine Complete Analysis Test Results & Interpretation

    The results Urine Routine test can be interpreted as below:

    Visual Examination

    ResultsNormal RangeInterpretation
    ColourYellowTea/cola-coloured urine may indicate urinary system damage.
    AppearanceClearCloudy or foamy urine may indicate infections and kidney problems, respectively.
    Volume800 to 2,000 ml/dayDehydration, reduced fluid intake, and certain chronic kidney diseases can decrease urine volume. Meanwhile, increased urine volume may be caused by conditions such as diabetes mellitus, increased fluid intake, certain kidney diseases, or the use of diuretic medications.

    Microscopic Examination

    ResultsNormal RangeInterpretation
    Epithelial Cells0-2 /hpfIncreased values in urine may signal UTI, inflammation, or cancer.
    Pus Cells0-5 /hpfElevated values may indicate UTI.
    RBCs0-2 /hpfIncreased values may indicate anticoagulant therapy, bleeding disorders, or past traumatic catheterisation.
    MucusNilPresence indicative of a UTI.
    Uric Acid CrystalsNilThe presence of these indicates kidney stones or a risk of kidney stones.
    Phosphate CrystalsNilAs above
    Calcium Oxalate CrystalsNilAs above
    Amorphous UratesNilAs above
    Amorphous PhosphatesNilAs above
    Granular CastsNilPresence may indicate acute glomerulonephritis or pyelonephritis.
    Hyaline CastsNilPresence is normal and might result from strenuous exercise or non-renal conditions like dehydration.
    YeastNilThe presence may indicate a yeast infection or a contaminated sample.
    BacteriaNilThe presence may indicate a UTI.
    ParasitesNilThe presence may indicate trichomoniasis.

    Chemical Examination

    ResultsNormal RangeInterpretation
    BilirubinNilElevated values may suggest liver diseases or conjugated hyperbilirubinemia.
    BloodNegativeSame as RBCs in microscopic findings.
    GlucoseNilPresence may indicate kidney disorders, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, hormonal issues, or pregnancy.
    KetonesNilPresence is observed in physical exercise, starvation, severe vomiting, cold exposure, and uncontrolled diabetes.
    NitritesNegativeElevated values might be due to bacterial nitrate reductase suggestive of bacterial cystitis.
    pH5.0-8.0High values may indicate conditions such as kidney issues and UTIs and low values may suggest conditions like diabetes-related ketoacidosis and diarrhoea.
    ProteinNilElevated levels may indicate dehydration, kidney disorders, heart failure, or transplant rejection.
    Specific Gravity1.001-1.035Abnormal results potentially indicate various health conditions. Increased urine specific gravity may be due to conditions such as dehydration, high sodium levels in the blood, heart failure, glucose in the urine, Addison disease, renal artery stenosis, shock, and syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH). Decreased urine specific gravity may be caused by drinking too much fluid, low sodium levels in the blood, kidney failure, severe kidney infection (pyelonephritis), damage to kidney tubule cells (renal tubular necrosis), and diabetes insipidus.
    UrobilinogenNormalIncreased values may result from liver diseases, haemolysis, megaloblastic anaemia, or tissue haemorrhage.
    Leucocyte EsteraseNegativePresence detects esterase enzyme released from the granules of leucocytes.

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