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Kidney Function Test (KFT)

Kidneys play an important role in the removal of waste products and maintenance of water and electrolyte balance in the body. Kidney Function Test (KFT) includes a group of blood tests to determine how well the kidneys are working.

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What is a Kidney Function Test (KFT)? 

Kidneys play a very important role in the removal of waste products and the maintenance of water and electrolyte balance in the body. The Kidney Function Test (KFT) is a group of blood tests to diagnose how well the kidneys are working. In addition to KFT, it also tests for the level of electrolytes to check for the presence of water or pH imbalance in the body. 

This is advised in the case of any symptoms suggestive of kidney-related problems, such as puffiness around the eyes, bloody or foamy urine, frequent urge to urinate, etc. These tests are usually a part of routine health checkups. It helps to diagnose kidney-related disorders as well as monitor the treatment efficiency of kidney diseases.

What are the other names for the Kidney Function Test (KFT)? 

The other names are Kidney Function Panel, Kidney Panel, and Renal Function Panel.

What are the test parameters included in the Kidney Function Test (KFT)?

There are several parameters: Blood Urea Nitrogen, Blood Urea, Creatinine, Calcium, Phosphorus, Uric Acid, Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride.


What does a Kidney Function Test (KFT) measure?

A kidney function test includes multiple measurements. Usually, not all kidney (renal panel) tests are exactly the same. The components may vary from laboratory to laboratory, or the measurements may be requested by the doctor prescribing the tests.

The most common components tested in most renal panels include:

  • Blood Urea/Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN): The blood urea nitrogen test is derived from the blood urea. Sometimes it is also called urea. Blood urea is a waste product of protein activity. Like creatinine, it is removed from the blood by the kidneys and cleared from the body in the form of urine.

  • Creatinine: Creatinine is the byproduct that is consistently formed as a result of normal muscle activity. The kidney removes creatinine from the blood so that it can be carried out of the body in the form of urine.

  • Calcium: Calcium is a mineral that is very vital for the bones, muscles, cardiovascular system, and nervous system. An excess of calcium makes the kidneys work harder to filter it.

  • Phosphorus: Phosphorus is a very essential mineral for the bones, teeth, nervous system, and muscles. Phosphorus is also needed to help balance and use other vitamins and minerals, including vitamin D, iodine, magnesium, and zinc. This phosphorus comes primarily from the foods and drinks that we consume.

  • Uric Acid: Uric Acid test is to analyse a nitrogenous compound that is produced by the metabolic breakdown of purine. Uric acid is also formed from the metabolic breakdown of the same types of food, like red meat, seafood, beans, etc. 

  • Sodium: Sodium is an electrolyte that comes from the diet, and the levels of sodium (Na) in the body are mainly controlled by the kidneys.

  • Potassium: Potassium plays a key role in a number of bodily processes, including nerve transmission, heart contractility, cellular transport, and normal kidney function.  Potassium is a type of electrolyte. Electrolytes are minerals that enable the acid-base balance, healthy fluid levels, and proper functioning of muscles and nerves. Potassium comes from the diet and is found throughout the body.

  • Chloride: Chloride is an electrolyte that works in conjunction with other electrolytes to carry out several functions, including preserving a healthy balance of fluids.

What’s the normal range of Kidney Function Test (KFT)? 

  • Blood Urea Nitrogen: 7 - 20 mg/dL

  • Blood Urea : 10 - 50 mg/dL

  • Creatinine-Male: 0.6-1.2, Female: 0.5-1.1 mg/dL

  • Calcium-8.5-10.5 mg/dL

  • Phosphorus-2.40–4.40 mg/dL

  • Uric Acid-3.4-7.0 mg/dL

  • Sodium-135-148 mmol/L

  • Potassium-3.5-5.0 mmol/L

  • Chloride-98-106 mmol/L

Who should get a Kidney Function Test (KFT)? 

A kidney function test is most frequently used as a diagnostic test when you have symptoms that could be explained by a kidney problem. These types of examples of symptoms that can be tied to kidney impairment or disease include:

  • Urinary changes include changes to the frequency, quantity, or appearance of your urine.

  • Swellings, especially in your arms, hands, legs, and/or face.

  • Itching

  • Loss of concentration

  • Appetite changes

  • Difficulty breathing

  • Nausea and/or vomiting

  • Fatigue

  • Muscle cramps or pain


A test like kidney (renal) function may also be used for diagnosis when you have symptoms without a clear cause or are being evaluated in an urgent care or emergency setting.

As a part of the screening test, the renal panel or other tests of kidney health are most often recommended if you have any certain risk factors for kidney disease. Sometimes, these risk factors include high blood pressure, diabetes, and a family history of kidney disease. 


For people with an increased risk of kidney problems, screening with a kidney panel may be part of their normal health checkups. Screening of this type is not the standard for people who do not have any risk factors.

The kidney (renal) profiles can be used as a monitoring test if you have had any kidney-related problems in the past or have already had an abnormal renal panel test. If you are receiving any treatment for kidney injury or disease, a renal panel might be used to gauge your response to that treatment.


If you are undergoing any medical procedure or taking any drugs that can modify kidney function, the doctor may prescribe a kidney (renal) panel before and/or after to monitor for any possible kidney-related side effects.


Are preparations needed for the Kidney Function Test (KFT)?

There is no preparation is required for this test. Fasting is not required.

What is the cost of a Kidney Function Test (KFT)?


What is the type of sample required for Kidney Function Test (KFT)? 

This test requires a blood sample.

Who performs a Kidney Function Test (KFT)?

A healthcare provider, who is also called a phlebotomist, usually performs blood draws, including those for kidney function tests, but any healthcare provider trained in drawing blood can perform this task. The samples are sent to a lab where a medical laboratory scientist prepares the samples and performs the tests on analysers or manually.

What should I expect during my Kidney Function Test (KFT)?

You can expect to experience the following during the blood test or a blood draw:

  • You will have to sit comfortably on the chair, and a healthcare provider will check your arms for an easily accessible vein. It is the inner part of your arm on the other side of your elbow.

  • Once they have located a vein, they will clean and disinfect the area with an alcohol swab.

  • Then they will insert a small needle into your vein to draw a blood sample. This might feel like a small pinch.

  • After they insert the needle, the required amount of blood will be collected in a test tube.

  • When they have collected enough blood for the test, they’ll remove the needle and hold a cotton ball or gauze on the site to stop any bleeding.

  • They will put a band-aid over the pricked site, and the blood collection is finished.

This process takes less than five minutes.

What should I expect after my Kidney Function Test?

Once the healthcare provider has collected the blood sample, it will be sent to the laboratory for processing or testing. When the test reports are ready, your healthcare provider will share the results with you.

What is the risk of the Kidney Function Test?

These blood tests are very common and don’t carry any significant risks. You may have a  slight pain like an ant bite when the needle gets inserted, and a small bruise may develop there.

When can I expect my Kidney Function Test results?

These reports are available via email or WhatsApp within 6 hours of the collection of the blood sample.

What do the results of a Kidney Function Test mean?

The test results from a kidney (renal) panel will show the separate line items for each component of the tests. Every line item will show the measurement in the sample as well as the reference range for the laboratory where they did the testing.

For various components of the test, there is no consensus range to define what is normal or abnormal. Instead, each lab has set the range for its own test based on its analytic methodologies and experience. Accordingly, the interpretation of the test results must be done in relation to the laboratory ranges given on your test report.

The exact test components of the kidney (renal) panel may vary, so you may not see all of these line items on your test. You may also see other measurements that were included by the laboratory or that were recommended by your doctor. For each component, though, you must see the laboratory’s reference range clearly displayed.

The interpretation of the tests is always done within the context of a particular situation. This means considering your previous health history, current health and symptoms, and the test results of any other medical tests you have taken.

The abnormal test results may be an indication of a health-related problem or an issue affecting the kidneys. However, doctors will rarely rely on one single test result alone. Instead, they might look for other patterns in which measurements are abnormal and how high or low those values are compared to the reference range.

It is very important to take these diverse factors into account in order to understand the clinical significance of your kidney (renal) panel test. For that reason, the test results should always be reviewed with your doctor, who can best explain what the test shows and what it means for your health and wellness.

What other tests might I have along with KFT test?

Ultrasound scan of the abdomen, CT Scan, Kidney Biopsy, Urine Culture.

How do I book a Kidney Function Test at home?

Log on to and submit your details. Our highly trained, professional, and vaccinated eMedics will be at your doorstep within 60 minutes or at the time booked by you.

Frequently Asked Questions on KFT Test

What is the normal kidney function?

The kidneys remove waste by-products and excess water from the blood. It also controls the balance of sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and other chemicals in the body. The filtering process is done by the kidneys through structures called nephrons.


What tests are done in KFT?

KFT test is also called the renal function test (RFT). The KFT test includes several parameters, such as: blood urea, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, and phosphorus. 


Is fasting required for the KFT blood test?

A KFT test does not require fasting or any preparation. The fasting requirement is dependent on the components being included in the test.

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